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CANADA A REFUGE FOR THE SLAVE.   127

their own time, and the concessions at later perilous periods by American statesmen who feared for the stability of the Union, gave to the Slave states an influence which culminated in the " Dred Scott" decision in 1857. Those compromises led in the North to what Henry Ward Beecher has aptly called a " condition of imprisoned moral sense". Fidelity to these agreements was every-where regarded as a moral obligation by men that hated slavery ; hence the perplexity to men abroad who could not " understand what was the reason of the later hesitancy of President Lincoln, and of the people, when they had risen to arms, in declaring at once the emancipation of the slaves". The same fact is stated in another form : "The South manufactured nothing except slaves; it was a great manufacture, that ; and the whole market was bribed. . . . Every manufactory. every loom as it clanked in the North said : ' Maintain not slavery, but the compromises of the Constitution', for that was the veil under which all these cries were continually uttered".'

Under these circumstances the condition of the Southern slave was comparatively hopeless in his own country. The pen has run too rapidly : he was a man without a country. Even in this statement too much has been said : his manhood was even denied. In the case of Dred Scott, a slave who brought suit to recover his freedom, suing for it in the federal court on the ground of being a citizen of a different state from the defendant, and further, of being taken into territory made free by a certain Act of Congress, Chief-justice Taney in his decision in the federal court declared that Scott was not entitled to bring suit in that court because he was not a citizen, but was a member of a race which for more than a century previous to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence had

I "Wendell Phillips, a Commemorative Discourse'.


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