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TREATMENT OF THE SLAVE.   87

Smith", at Woodstock, N. B., in 18o8.' The parish clergyman of that day required the power to repress a smile, or the faculty of " smiling inside" which George Washington's slave ascribed to his master, or the sonorous, classic or historic names frequently conferred on slaves in baptism or repeated in the publication of the banns of marriage must have seriously discounted pulpit dignity.

The once prevalent idea that the right to enslave a Negro was based upon his being a pagan. and that to hold him in bondage after conversion to baptism was illegal—an idea which led to the passage of a law in Maryland in 1671, and at a later period in New York, that conversion or baptism should not be taken to give freedom to slaves, and at the beginning of the eighteenth century in some quarters awakened a strong objection to the baptism of slaves on the part of slave-proprietors—seems to have given Provincial masters little concern. It is not improbable, however, that in relation to the marriage of slaves they were in some measure hampered by that fear of complication of property which led a great majority of \Vest India planters to oppose formal marriages, while they encouraged illicit unions. Several marriages of slaves, as such, are recorded in old parish church registers. One may read in that of St. Mark's, Niagara, Ont.: " Married, 1797, February 5th, Moses and Phcebe, Negro slaves of M r. Secretary Janis"; and in that of St. George's. Sydney, C. B. : "George Peter. black man, and Isabella Tomas, a free black woman, having been published three Sundays in the church, married 22nd July, 1787". The entry in the latter register of the marriage of " Casar Augustus, a slave. and Darius Snider. back folks", has

' The descendants of Captain Jacob Smith, of Detancey's First Battalion. say that he brought one or two slaves to Woodstock. Others of the name also appear to have brought slaves to that part of New Brunswick.


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