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CHAPTER III.

ORIGIN OF THE SLAVE. HIS TREATMENT IN CANADA.
CAUSES OF THE DECLINE OF SLAVERY IN CANADA.

The slave in Canada was not in every case a Negro. Among bondmen in Quebec were Indians known as Panis, or, as some have called them, Pawnees ; and a few of these captive Panis, if one may judge from the advertisement of Charles Field, before quoted, were also found in the western province.' Of the slaves brought to the Maritime Provinces by settlers from the Northern states, either before or after the war of the Revolution, a number were of mixed race.

Not many years after Dutch traders had introduced African slaves into Virginia, the fortunes of war threw numbers of Indian captives into the hands of the English settlers in America, who enslaved them as their Anglo-Saxon forefathers had enslaved their prisoners more than a thousand years before. At the close of the fierce Pequod war, when about seven hundred Indians had been slain or captured, the captives were divided between the colonists of Connecticut and Massachusetts. By the authorities of the latter province the male children were sent to the Bermudas ; the women and girls being distributed as slaves among the settlements at home : a somewhat similar course was no doubt adopted by the managers of the first-named province. Many other Indian captives were thrown into the hands of New England settlers by the King Philip war. These could be held as slaves at home, but could not at the time be lawfully taken out of the country. Another terrible war—between the South Carolinians and

See page 48.


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