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THE LOYALISTS AND SLAVERY.   39

French and English, and is fit for any hard labour."' In 1793 a female stave was sold at Quebec for one hundred dollars : the latest public slave-sale at Montreal. that of Emanuel Allen, for thirty-six pounds, took place in August. 1797. The conveyance required was passed, but the sale was afterwards set aside by legal proceedings. To these and similar slave announcements variety was sometimes given in the local paper by an advertisement of a runaway, preceded by a rough wood-cut of a dark figure speeding as for life. Any tavern-keeper in the province entertaining a slave made himself liable to a penalty of five pounds.

At the close of the Revolutionary War the western part of Canada—now the province of Ontario—then almost a wilderness, became the home of some thousands of Loyalists, not a few of whom were descendants of the old Dutch and Walloon settlers of the province of New York. They entered Canada at different points, some by crossing the St. Lawrence in the vicinity of Cornwall and at Montreal ; while others landed at Cataraqui—Kingston of to-day. and perhaps the largest number at points along the Niagara frontier. \Zany of them settled along the Upper St. Lawrence, around the beautiful Bay of Quintc, and on the northern shore of Lake Ontario ; and others founded homes along the banks of the Niagara and Detroit rivers. At these and other neighborhoods they were joined by large numbers of disbanded troops, militia and half-pay officers, to whom and to the comparatively few immigrants from the mother country very liberal land grants were made by the British government.

During the depressing journey from the old home to the new, in some cases occupying weeks spent in the open boat or waggon, some of the Loyalists and their families

Anderson's " life of the Duke of Kent," p. t8.


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