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THE LOYALISTS AND SLAVERY.   35

Just before that strife had become clearly defined along the borders of the province of Canada slaves were being acquired by purchase in its western section. Colonel Clark, in his Memoirs," remarks : " After the Declaration of Independence drovers used to come in with droves of horses, cattle, sheep and negroes, for the use of the troops, forts, and settlers in Canada, and my father purchased his four negroes, three males and one female named Sue."

An undated document among the Canadian Archives—a " Return of Negroes brought in by scouts and sold at Montreal," and signed by "Sir John Johnson, Lieut.-Colonel Commanding," recalls such scenes as took place on the borders of New York and Canada during the first three or four years of the conflict. The Mohawk Valley was the basis of the Congress operations designed against Niagara and Detroit and the western posts. It was partly, there-fore, in order to destroy the resources being husbanded for these expeditions, and in part to favor the escape of such Loyalists as were desirous of reaching Canada, that repeated attacks were directed upon the valley from the Canadian side.' The Loyalist troops—the Royal Regiment of New York and Colonel Butler's corps of Mohawk Rangers, the greater number of whom, like the commanderin-chief, Sir John Johnson, had been violently driven from their former homes on the Mohawk, were prominent in these attacks, impelled to them at times by a wish to recover personal property and at others by a spirit of revenge towards their former neighbors. They were generally accompanied by "Canada Indians" and " Mohawk Indians," faithful allies throughout the war, by whom indeed most of the slaves denominated " Rebel Property" were captured, and for whose capture they were promised an allowance by the officer in command. The slaves of

' Kingsford's " History of Canada," voL 7.


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