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THE SLAVE IN CANADA.   S

1709, by Jacques Raudot, intendant at Quebec. and read at the close of mass in certain churches in Quebec, repeated the king's permission to hold slaves, stated that Negroes and Panis had been procured as slaves, and added that, to remove all doubt as to ownership, it was declared that all Panis or Negroes who had been so bought or held should belong to the persons so owning them, in full proprietorship.' Most of these Negroes had been landed at Jamaica or other West India islands from English slave-ships : a very few may have been stealthily brought in from English colonies on the mainland. Kingsford states that of several young Canadians prosecuted in 1718 by the Quebec authorities on account of their relations with the English at Albany, maintained by way of Lake Champlain. one, \1. de la Decouverte, had made himself remarkable by having brought to Montreal "a Negro slave and some silverware.' The continued legal recognition of the system is evident from several royal declarations respecting slaves in the colony, bearing dates 1721, 1742 and £ 45 ; and from an ordinance of Intendant Hocquart, issued in 1736, regulating the manner of emancipating slaves in Canada. In parish records for 1755-36 both Negroes and Panis are mentioned ; and slaves were often described in legal and other notices and documents of that day as " Negroes, effects and merchandise."

In the system of bondage thus instituted in Canada under French rule no change took place through the transfer of the colony to the English crown. It had been provided by the 47th article of the capitulation of Canada in t;6o that all Negroes and Panis should remain in their condition as slaves ; and no hesitation on the part of the English authorities could have been feared, since, by an

' J. C. Hamilton, LL B., "Transactions of Canadian Institute,' VoL t. .. History of Canada." Vol. 2. p. 507.


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