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308   THE PIONEERS OF OLD ONTARIO

usual Yonge Street-Lake Simcoe route of the time to Hawkstone.

"From Hawkstone," the grandson told me, "my grandfather and his family tramped over twelve miles through the bush, carrying their belongings on their backs. In lighting a fire they used a flint and punk. Grandfather's nearest neighbour, when he settled on his lot, was a negro a mile and a half away. The nearest white was Smith of Dalston, six miles distant. He had to carry his wool to Newmarket to have it made into cloth and his grist to Holland Landing to be ground. He had the choice of two markets for his produce—Barrie and Penetang'. At the Thompson store at Penetang' he could get just enough cash to pay his taxes; the balance due on his produce had to be taken out in trade. At Barrie he could not get even as much cash."

Mr. Gray also threw interesting light on the origin of some place-names in the country about the upper end of Lake Simcoe. As else-where stated, a number of Peninsular War veterans were pioneers in the Lake Simcoe country, and among these Spanish terms were as common as French expressions among the Canadians who were in the mud of Flanders at a later day.

"Oro," said Mr. Gray, "is Spanish for gold, and Peninsular veterans seeing the gold-like yellow sand on the shore of Lake Simcoe applied the name to Oro. `Orillia,' again, is Spanish for coast and hence the name given to Orillia town and township. I cannot, however, account for the names Rama, Mara, and Thorah. These are


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