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STRONG DRINK, RELIGION AND LAW 295

pioneers. These, seeing the evils of drunkenness in their elders, were ready converts to the gospel preached by devoted clergymen such as the Presbyterian and 1Alethodist ministers named above.

German settlements were formed in Bruce about the same time that the Scotch pioneers settled there. Fifty years later these German communities were, in the matter of social customs, much the same as they were at the beginning. Even in the earliest days they were not given to excessive drinking. Neither did they later on abandon drinking altogether. Beer was to them what whiskey was to the Scotch, and men do not get drunk on beer taken as a beverage like tea. In these German communities, the evils of drunkenness not having been witnessed, the cause of total abstinence did not make headway later on; and, until prohibition came, those of the second generation continued to use beer as their fathers and grandfathers had used it before them.

Bruce and North Simcoe did not hold any pre-eminence in the number of drinking places in the pioneer period. Twenty years ago John Langstaff told me that he remembered no fewer than fifty-eight taverns on Yonge Street, or nearly two per mile. Eleven of these were inside what, in 1900, were the city limits. About Thornhill and Richmond Hill the country was cluttered with drinking places, and Bond Lake, Wilcox Lake, and the Pinnacle had one each. Their numbers thinned out towards Holland Landing, but at "The Landing" itself there were three. The greatest development of the


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