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288   THE PIONEERS OF OLD ONTARIO

boards was called the `stub-shot,' and was thrown in free of charge by the mill-owner. All the rough edging, suitable for roofing, one could pile on a sleigh could be had for a dollar. The choice lumber was choice. I have seen boards sixteen feet long and three feet wide without a blemish.

"Another little cross-roads village in the neighbourhood of the saw-mills was called `Shingleton,' so named because shingles were made there. The shingles were split by hand from huge pine blocks, this work being done in winter by men who worked as carpenters in summer.

"Almost everything was home-made. Wool clipped from sheep on the farm, was carded at New Hamburg, Baden, or Haysville; and German weavers, to be found in every neighbour-hood, wove it into cloth. Woolen shirts, the only kind known at that time, were likewise home-made. Clothing of this kind could hardly be worn out. Leather, in those days, was real leather. Hand-made top boots, costing two dollars and a half to three dollars per pair, would outlast two or three pairs of to-day, and the tugs of our first set of harness are still in use."

The first boom for settlers in South Perth came with the Crimean War, when wheat went up to two dollars and a half per bushel and dressed pork to eight dollars per hundred-weight. But this "prosperity," like that experienced during the late war, was fictitious and was soon followed by a period of depression.

"The first genuine prosperity came with the inauguration of modern dairying," said


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