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FROM FATHER TO SON   287

place there were maples four feet in diameter and rock elm, seven feet. The cutting down of these trees and burning of logs and bush did not by any means end the labour of clearing the ground. The great stmps, in many cases forty of them to the acre, still remained. I have seen three successive grain crops produced among such stumps without the aid of a plow, the seed being covered with hoes in the hands of children. In the beginning, wheat, produced under such circumstances, had to be hauled all the way to Galt to be ground. This was before a grist-mill had been built in Stratford. I have seen wheat sold in New Hamburg at sixty cents per bushel, and a third of that in trade. Frosted or rusted wheat could be disposed of only to distilleries. There were two of these on the third concession at that time, and their output sold at twenty cents a gallon.

"Although timber was so abundant, the work of preparing it for building purposes was exceedingly onerous. We had to haul logs four-teen miles to Wilmot's Centre to be sawn. There were at that time three saw mills on Cedar Creek within a quarter of a mile of each other; but all trace of these, save part of one of the dams, has since disappeared.

"These old-time saw-mills were very crude affairs, `up-and-down' saws being used. The logs were not cut right through to the end in sawing, a foot or so being left uncut for the `dog' to hold on by. When the work of sawing a log was finished the `dog' was loosened and the uncut section at the end was finished by splitting with an axe. This split end of the


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