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284   THE PIONEERS OF OLD ONTARIO

bags were empty, but in exchange there were from fifty to four hundred sheep in a drove. Twenty dollar American gold pieces were common, and cows that had been selling around eighteen dollars jumped to forty dollars, a big price for that time."

Nicholas Schneider, who came over about the same time as the first of the Becks, in speaking of the voyage across the Atlantic said; "The passengers, of whom there were two hundred on board, had to provide their own food for use on the voyage. Our party made such full provision that we had two bags of biscuits left when we reached New York, and we had cured German beef and pork, as well as butter, after we reached Rainham. The butter had been cooked and put in sealers before leaving and it kept in perfect condition all the way across.

"In one respect those who settled in Haldimand in the 'thirties were fortunate. Being near the front and near water communication the timber on their lands had at least some value. "The land cost four dollars an acre," said Mr. Schneider, "and the timber we sold paid for a good deal of this. The old people never became expert with the axe, but the young men were as skilful as the best after a month in the woods. In our first winter here, four of us, from sixteen to twenty-two years of age, chopped sixteen acres. In the following summer we logged and burned eleven acres and sowed it in fall wheat."

One of the greatest hardships borne by the first German settlers was in maintaining their religious services. In all sections of the province such difficulties were met with, but in the


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