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280   THE PIONEERS OF OLD ONTARIO

was fairly solidly English, but in all parts of the county the three chief elements named were more or less mixed. At the beginning, the different races were divided in language and in sentiment. The Pennsylvania immigrants of the first generation spoke Dutch, those from Germany conversed in German, and those from the British Isles in English. To the first, "Home" or "the Old Country" meant Pennsylvania; to the second, the words spelled Germany; to the third, they carried memories of the hedge-rows and ivy-clad towers of rural England. But a change had come as far back as twenty years ago. Even in that part of Rainham then known as "Little Germany," English was becoming the language of the people. "Although," said Nicholas Reicheld, one of the first settlers in the section, "English is taught only half a day at school, it is in English that the children converse when going to and from school." All over the county, while among the older people German or Dutch could still be heard at that time, English was practically the universal tongue among those of the third generation; and a common tongue was creating a common Canadian citizenship.

Mr. Reicheld was born in Lorraine in 1833, thirty-seven years before that province was lost to France as a result of the war of 1870. Although a German, as his name indicates, and also Protestant, Mr. Reicheld preferred French to German rule. "True, French was the official language," he said, "but in the home we spoke in whatever tongue we liked and there was less of police rule and less of irksome taxation under


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