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UP BRUCE AND HURON WAY   257

with my family. I had seven acres in wheat and some other crops as well, and it looked to me like the dawn of prosperity. But, just as the wheat was ripening, the whole prospect was blighted in a single night. Frost came with the darkness, and wheat, potatoes, and all else went down in one common ruin.

"Without wheat to harvest, there was no use in remaining home any longer; and so once more the weary pilgrimage to the front was undertaken and fall and winter were spent in earning money, not only to carry the family through the winter but to buy seed for the following spring. The set-back left us very nearly where we had started, and it was eight long years after our first winter in the bush before I was able to spend all my time on our own farm. Even after that there was constant danger of frost and sometimes more or less severe loss was sustained. Indeed, it was not until the bush fires of the 'sixties burned off the black muck on the surface that June frosts ceased to be a source of worry.

"It was not alone the lack of knowledge of how to use the woodman's axe that was against the emigrants from Scotland when they settled in the forest then covering Huron and Bruce," continued Mr. McDonald. "Many of the new-comers were from the Island of Lewis and had been fishermen in the old land. As fishermen their periods of labour had been governed by the weather. When nature favoured, it had been long periods of arduous toil for them, while with foul weather came complete cessation from labour. The habits these fishermen had inher-


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