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158   THE PIONEERS OF OLD ONTARIO

people carried their bedding and other belongings on their backs.

"Quick work was done, when the locations on which our people proposed to make their homes were finally reached. Rude shanties were put up on one day and equally rude fireplaces were constructed outside for cooking. Next day stone fireplaces were built inside and the smoke from these was allowed to escape through a hole in the roof, no chimneys being yet in place. The `chinking' of the log walls was not completed until the approach of winter made this imperative.

"When the first grain crop was harvested, the nearest place at which it could be ground was the old `Red Mill' at Holland Landing, and the grain sent there had to be `packed' as far as Beaverton. The settlers generally went in couples, each man carrying a bushel of wheat on his back. On the return journey the carriers depended for food on bread made on the way from the flour they carried with them.

"Wolves were a great source of worry and loss. One morning my mother turned our sheep out of the pen at daybreak and a belated wolf destroyed six of them before the flock could be rounded up. The brutes even attacked the cattle at times, but they made little by such attacks when a number of cattle were together. In these cases the cattle formed a circle with cows and calves in the centre, the oxen with lowered heads forming the outer circle. Against that defence wolves attacked in vain.

"The first Presbyterian minister in the section was the Rev. Mr. McMurchy, and by him


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