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grindstones that were made to revolve with a crank turned by hand. The wheat was poured by hand through a hole in the upper stone. Between dark and bedtime enough would be ground to provide for the next day's needs. Later on we thought we were well off when we got a coffee-mill to do the grinding.

"It was hard enough to get along in the early days. Potatoes and corn were our chief reliance, and the only ready money was earned by sailing on the lakes. We found work enough at home, however,—cutting down trees in winter, splitting rails and fencing in spring, and burning (allows in summer. The last was hard work. I was my father's principal helper, and we had to keep moving the burning logs closer and closer together while the heat of fire and sun combined caused the perspiration to pour from us in streams.

"It was a lawless time, too, in the early days. Dougall Carmichael, my mother's brother, came out to us in 1832. He walked from Sutton by the road, after having his goods landed at Beaverton. When he went to Beaverton to secure the goods, some men there began shooting and my uncle, fearing for his life, fled. Returning later he found a chest broken into and sixty sovereigns and some clothing stolen. Years afterwards, when I was returning from Mount Albert, where I had been with a loxd of grain, a man told me he knew of the robbery and that the robber had buried the gold under his hearthstone near Beaverton.

"Another time when I was driving to Toronto with a load of grain I had with me a couple of wolf

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