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PUFF-BALLS AND TOADSTOOLS.   163

yellowish cap, well covered with white warty particles, resembling " fly-blows "; this is not considered fatally poisonous, and in some countries it is freely eaten, after a treatment with salt. The natives of Siberia and Iiamschatka manage to get drunk on this species, and as all other intoxicants are very scarce, and they prefer very often to be drunk rather than sober, they consequently hold this species in great esteem. I have often noticed that our cattle in the autumn, when there is a good crop of toadstools in the woods, and they get a taste of them, become almost crazed for more, and if allowed to range at large will make a bee-line for the place where they grow. They seem to prefer a very large white species, and I never heard of any bad results to them or to those who drank their milk. Our red squirrels eat freely of a small red mushroom of the Agarie family. One may often see them scampering away with a lunch in their teeth.

The bracket fungus, that grows out from the sides of trees and logs and stumps, is often more than a foot across. It is arranged on a different plan from toadstools : there are no gills, but on the under side there are innumerable holes running up through the latest annual growth ; they are as smooth as rifle barrels. The spores are


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