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or mud by the action of the fins. Over these the males keep guard until the young are hatched, in the meantime driving off all intruders and promoting circulation of the water by fanning with ventral fins and tail.

  1. Large-mouthed Black Bass. Yellow Bass. Green Bass. JIicropterus salmoides (Lacepede).—At one time this fish was abundant in the waters of this locality, but it is now very scarce. The spawning season begins in May and ends at the beginning of July. A nest is scooped out of the sand or mud, in which the adhesive eggs are deposited. These are guarded by the parent fish until hatched. Incubation lasts from one to two weeks, according to the temperature of the water, and the young bass, after emerging from the eggs, remain in the nest for about a week. As the weather becomes cold this Bass seeks deep places, often hibernating under rocks, sunken logs, or in the mud. In the summer its favourite localities are under overhanging banks or in holes among weeds, where it lies in wait for the frogs, fish and crustaceans which constitute the greater part of its food.


PERCIDAE. (The Perches.)

  1. Yellow Pickerel. Pike-Perch. Dore. Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill).—The Yellow Pickerel is common in some parts of Lake Ontario, but is not often taken near Toronto. Its spawning time is in early spring, when it runs on to gravelly or sandy


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