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AMPHIBIA

 

Salamander, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Green. Localities as for Ambystoma punctatum. Not common except in woods to the east of Toronto on Scar-borough Heights. Spawns in pools, small masses of eggs being attached in rows to slender branches or to weeds. March 24-April 20, usually April 1-10. Metamorphosis in September-October of same year.

Black Newt, Desmoganthus nigra, Green. Only known as from Toronto by a specimen so labelled in the Biological museum ; no more definite locality is mentioned. Usually in or near clear, cold springs or brooks in rocky localities.

Red-backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus, Green. This includes the varieties Plethodon cinereus cinereus and Plethodon cinereus erythronotus (Cope), intermediates, and also individuals with more red marking than is typical. It occurs on all sides of the city. Remains under shelter by day. Damp woods with considerable undergrowth are preferred, but occasionally specimens are found in drier localities, even in open fields under stones. Spawning by choice within the cracks in decaying logs and stumps, but in default of such under stones. A cluster of 3-12 eggs attended by the female. June 15-July 4. No aquatic stage. Metamorphosis takes place in August-September of the same year.

Salamander, Ilernidactyliuni, scutatum,, Schlegel. One specimen reported from the Humber Valley. Habits, etc., so far as known, are similar to those of Plethodon.

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