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  1. Black Bear. Ursus americanus americanus Pallas. Listed by Gapper in 1830, but probably not exterminated till much later.

  2. Red Fox. Vulpes fulva fulva (Desmarest). Still common.

  3. Grey Wolf. Canis lycaon Schreber. Gapper had seen only imperfect specimens, probably skins, in 1830, but, according to the late Dr. Brodie, wolves occasionally drove deer into Markham as late as 1840.

  4. Wild Cat. Lynx ruffus ruffus (Gueldenstaedt). One specimen taken at Scarboro was in the possession of the late Dr. Brodie, and I have seen others near Toronto, but it never was common.

  5. Canadian Lynx. Lynx canadensis canadensis Kerr. One recent record ; has never been more than a migrant.

  6. Panther. Felis couguar Kerr. Accidental, one record. (" Biological Review of Ontario," 1894, pp. 18-23.)


D. S. Jordan. Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States. 1888.

C. W. Nash. Vertebrates of Ontario. Toronto, 1908.

Stone and Cram. American Animals. Toronto, 1902.



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