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FERNS AND FERN ALLIES

  1. Aspidium cristatum, Sw. (Crested Shield-fern). Quite a common fern along the borders of swamps and marshes, in grass.

  2. Aspidium cristatum, var. clintonianum, D. C. Eaton. Found quite commonly in several localities. At York Mills, Niagara Glen, in northern and east-ern Ontario in more shaded habitat than the species.

  3. Aspidium spinulosum, var. intermedium, D. C. Eaton. This is perhaps our most common fern, occurring in rich woods everywhere.

  4. Cystopteris bulbifera, Bernh. (Bladder Fern). One of the most common swamp ferns. It is very common in southern Ontario, but is rare locally northward.

  5. Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. (Brittle Fern). Widely distributed throughout Ontario, and varied in form and habitat ; occurring in some places on exposed rocks, but mostly in shade.

  6. Woodsia ilvensis, R. Br. (Rusty Woodsia). This is a typical northern fern, occurring on secluded rocks.

  7. Dicksonia punctilobula, Gray (Hay-scented Fern). This is also a common northern species, growing around rocks in the open. Occurs also in shaded situations near Madoc. Reported from Ingle-wood in rocky woods (White).

  8. Onoclea sensibilis, L. (Sensitive Fern), with the var. obtusilobata is very common in low, grassy fields and thickets throughout Ontario.

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