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LIFE ZONES

 

farms, to a less extent, however, along the Canadian Pacific than along the Grand Trunk Railway. Along the former, especially between Montreal and Have-lock, Ontario, one sees many illustrations of the poplar-birch type arising on burned areas, together with patches of the characteristic broad-leaf and coniferous forest types. Along the latter one sees only small remnants of the original maple-beech forests in the farm wood-lots, with frequent cedar swamps on the heavier, poorly-drained soils.

The Alleghanian Area as described above corresponds to the Lake District of the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes Region of Engler and Drude. With reference to the other authors, they place it in the same classes as given above under the Carolinian Area.

The Canadian Zone lying north of the Alleghanian Area, as shown on the accompanying map, has a forest in its southern portion similar to that of the Alleghanian Area, but as one goes northward the broad-leaf component becomes smaller and the needle-leaf component larger, as is shown by the greater abundance of balsam, white spruce, and black spruce. The white pine and red pine decrease in abundance. When the Hudson Bay drainage area is reached, sugar maple, beech, white ash, red oak will be found to have dropped out, and the forest becomes prevailingly coniferous, with black spruce forming the greater portion, sometimes two-thirds, of the stands. White spruce and balsam become minor species. The

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