NATURAL HISTORY, TORONTO REGION
canadense) ; large flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) ; hepatica (Hepatica triloba) ; cohosh (Actaea rubra) ; false miterwort (Tiarella cordifolia) ; bishop's cap (Mitella diphylla) ; blue violet (Viola cucullata) ; black snakeroot (Sanicula marylandica).
A mixed broad-leaved—needle-leaved forest frequently occurs on the flats and bases of slopes along streams and lakes, and sometimes on low ridges rising above the pure broad-leaved forest. Hemlock is the principal needle-leaved tree in these situations, and while it may occur in greater proportion, it usually forms about one-third of such stands. Sugar maple and beech make up another third, while the remaining members are yellow birch, balsam, bass-wood, hop hornbeam, arbor vitae, black spruce and white ash, in order of their abundance. The herbaceous flora does not differ essentially from that of the pure broad-leaved forest.
Another mixed type is to be found in the drained swamps along the margins of slow-moving streams. In composition it is about one-third each of arbor vitae and black ash (Fraxinus nigra). The other third consists of balsam, hemlock, yellow birch, black spruce, maple, and elm. The herbaceous flora is a mixture of that of the broad-leaved forest and that of the coniferous swamp.
Along the railways from Montreal to Toronto forests of the types described above can be seen only in patches, for they have been chiefly supplanted by