ginicum) ; cinnamon fern (Osutiunda cinnamomea) small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) ; pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) ; manna grass (Glyceria canadensis) ; orchid (Habenaria hyperborea) ; and sphagnum moss.
The broad-leaved forest occupies the deep glacial drift soils, which for the most part are gravelly or sandy loams. It is usually found on the higher slopes and ridges when these are well covered with soil, but it may occur on sandy flats when the water table is near the surface. At least one-half of the forest is composed of sugar maple (Aces saccharum), and about one-fourth consists of beech (Fagus grandiflora). The other species in order of their abundance are: Basswood (Tibia americana) ; yellow birch (Betula lutea) ; hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)
hop hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) ; elm (Ulmus americana) ; white ash (Fraxinus americana) ; balsam (Abies balsamea) ; black cherry (Prunus serotina) ; large-toothed aspen (Populus grandidentata).
The names of some of the characteristic plants which may be found beneath the broad-leaved forest are given below: Prickly gooseberry (gibes cynosbati) ; witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) ; striped maple (Ater pennsylvanicum) ; round-leaved dog-wood (Comm circinata) ; witch hobble (Viburnum alnifolium) ; wood fern (Aspidium spinulosum)
wood rush (Luzula vernalis) ; yellow clintonia (Clintonia borealis) ; false Solomon's seal (Smilacina racemosa) ; wild lily of the valley (Mianthemum