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(Erigenia bulbosa) ; purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens) ; green milkweed (Acerates fioridana) ; ground pink (Phlox subulata) ; waterleaf (Hydrophyllum appendiculatum) ; bluebells (Mertensia virginica) ; puccoon (Lithospernum gmelini) ; basil (Pycnanthemum flexuosum) ; ground cherry (Physalis virginiana) ; purple foxglove (Gerardia purpurea) ; tall bluebell (Campanula americana) ; blazing star (Liatris cylindracea).

The Carolinian Area corresponds to the Lacustrine Area, Alleghanian-Ozark District of Die Vegetation der Erde of Engler and Drude. It lies within the Broad-leaved Summer Forest of Schimper; the Deciduous Dicotylous Forest of Warming; the Chest-nut Zone of Mayr.

In approaching Toronto from Montreal one passes through the Alleghanian Area of the Transition Zone of Merriam. The northern boundary of the area is approximately formed by a line drawn from Ottawa to the southern portion of Georgian Bay. The area represents a transitional region from the prevailing needle-leaved forests of the north to the prevailing broad-leaved forests of the south, and its forests are consequently of mixed composition. Over the greater part of the area, however, the needle-leaved forests. and the broad-leaved forests occupy distinct sites. The needle-leaved forest, according to the situation in which it occurs, may be divided into two types; the white pine–red pine type and the coniferous swamp type.



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