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up shale, limestone and Archaean rocks. These rich but somewhat heavy soils make the basis of the agriculture of southern Ontario, which is still the most productive province of Canada. The old lake bottoms of Iroquois and Algonquin origin afford also a great variety of soils of a somewhat different kind, mostly derived from the glacial deposits of their shores either by the action of waves or of rivers entering and forming deltas. Where the waves have eaten into promontories of boulder clay the enclosed boulders are sometimes left in the fields in hopeless numbers, but usually the lake-formed soils are free from stones. They range from the gravels of ancient bars, where the soil is thin and too well drained, into sandy slopes of very light soil, which merge lower down into sandy loam, and finally in the flatter parts form wide stretches of rich silty alluvium. The soils due to lake action have proved themselves excellently adapted for fruit growing, especially the sandy loams, so that the band of Iroquois deposits round Lake Ontario is largely covered with orchards and vineyards. There is probably no part of North America more favorable to mixed farming and fruit growing than the part of Ontario south of the Archaean region.



A number of excursions have been planned for the members of the Geological Congress in and near 79


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