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11

NATURAL HISTORY, TORONTO REGION

 

Heights, where the waves of Lake Ontario have removed it for half a mile.

The old shore is deformed, rising 116 feet above Lake Ontario at Hamilton, 176 feet at Toronto, 385 feet at Trenton, and 495 feet on an island to the northeast of Trenton. It gives convenient routes for high roads and railroads, and sites for three cities, St. Catharines, Hamilton and Toronto. The last named city is, however, expanding beyond the old shore cliffs, spreading out on the upland of boulder clay to the north. Fine gravel bars extend across the ancient river valleys, enclosing bays which are readily observed. The most striking of these bars runs like a wall northeast of Hamilton, cutting off a Dundas Bay of Lake Iroquois, as well marked as the modern Hamilton Bay, separated by a sand bar from Lake Ontario.

Two long bars occur at Toronto, one projecting westward from West Toronto, cutting off an old Humber Bay, the other extending two or three miles southwest from Scarborough Heights, forming an old Don Bay. The latter bar in shape and the arrangement of its lagoons resembles the present Toronto Island.

The belt of gently sloping shallow water deposits between the Iroquois beach and the shore of Lake Ontario is generally from two to five miles wide and provides some of the most valuable fruit lands in Canada, where apples, grapes and peaches are cultivated on a large scale.

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