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GEOLOGY OF THE TORONTO REGION

 

Plectambonites sericeus.

Catazyga erratica. Cyrtolites ornatus. Byssonychia radiata. Whiteavesia pholadiformis.

Modiolopsis modiolaris.

"   concentrica.

Orthoceras crebriseptum.

Isotelus maximus. Calymene callicephala.

Richmond marine beds overlie the Lorraine toward the north and come as far south as Streetsville, but are not found along the shore of Lake Ontario. Going westward from Port Credit, Queens-ton red shale soon shows itself in river valleys and reddens the soil of the fields. It follows the Lorraine shale conformably and has the usual slight dip south-westwards. Continuing toward the west it forms the lowest part of the escarpment which runs from Queenston to Hamilton and then bends northwards to Georgian Bay. It is well seen at Queenston and in the lower part of the Niagara gorge, and may be followed along the foot of " the mountain," as the escarpment is called locally. At Waterdown and Milton it is manufactured into bricks.

The Queenston shale is very sparsely fossiliferous and in most places seems entirely barren, in this respect resembling many other red sedimentary rocks. The Richmond beds farther to the north contain many fossils of an Ordovician type.

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