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and Applied Science had last year 4,136 students and 432 members on its teaching staff.

This wonderful advance in the field of higher education, appealing as it will to the scientific reader, may be taken as typical of the material growth of the city. That growth has been largely the result of the policy of protection brought in under Sir John A. Macdonald in 1878, which gave an immense impetus to manufacturing in Toronto. In 1881 the population was 82,000, and in 1891 it had grown to 181,000. Germany itself could scarcely show more rapid progress. Would that Toronto had followed the German system of extension and town planning ! With the wastefulness characteristic of the American continent, an area almost as large as that of Paris was paved and drained. The natural result followed, and during the next ten years the city only grew to 208,000, the boom having burst early in the decade.

With the turn of the century came a change. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's epigram that the twentieth century was to be Canada's seems to have won favour " there where the will and the power are one." A series of events brought Canada into the public eye. The Britisli, preference did as much for the increase of British immigration as it did for British trade. At the same time the tide of American immigrants flowed across from the Western States in constantly increasing volume. From the European continent, too, a flood of foreigners entered the Dominion, which has thus become the scene of a new " Wandering of



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