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ceeded Head, sent in his famous report, which is said to have been written by Charles Buller, his secretary, the friend of Tennyson and the pupil of Car-

lyle. To this we owe the establishment of responsible 1846 government and the abolition of abuses. As a result Toronto, now one of the capitals of a united Canada, made rapid advances, and though its prosperity was temporarily checked by the adoption of free trade in England, it received an added impetus by Lord Elgin's Reciprocity Treaty with the United States.

During these years the growth of both city and province had been slow but steady. The early settlers came mostly from the south, including the " Pennsylvania Dutch," of whom a number took up land to the north and east of Toronto, in the neighbourhood of Markham. After the war of 1812-13 this influx ceased, and the new settlers came from the British Isles, especially Scotland and the north of Ireland. To this day Toronto is the greatest Orange centre except Belfast. After the famine the Irish came in great numbers and suffered terribly from the ravages of the fever and the cholera epidemics which raged in 1847 and 1854. The Roman Catholic Bishop Power, after whom Power Street is named, sacrificed his life in the former year while ministering to these unfortunates.

The first Toronto " boom " broke after the Crimean War in 1857. The opening of the Northern, Grand Trunk and Great Western Railways had facilitated transportation, stimulated commerce and en-



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