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military character of the early settlers, to which reference has already been made.

Among the first inhabitants of York were many half-pay officers of both the army and navy, including several surgeons. The social predominance which naturally fell to their share led to a political leader-ship that culminated in the " family compact." By one of the little ironies of history the seat of this cabal was the " Grange," afterwards the home of Professor Goldwin Smith. It was built by Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, in the outskirts of the town. Dr. Smith was fond of telling how Justice Boulton's two carriage horses, Bonaparte and Jefferson, had once attacked a bear in their pasture before the " Grange." The house stands in beautiful grounds at the head of John Street and was bequeathed with Professor Smith's collection of historical portraits to the city.

The military governors—Sir Peregrine Maitland, who had eloped with the daughter of the Duke of Richmond after the famous Waterloo ball, and Sir John Colborne, who founded Upper Canada College in 1829—were both supporters of the oligarchy. But it was Sir Francis Head, " the tried reformer," under whose rule the discontent of the reformers led by

1837 William Lyon Mackenzie came to an outbreak. Toronto, which had resumed its old name on its

1834 incorporation as a city three years before, again approved its loyalty, and the rising was put down.

1839 But the defeat of the reformers was to result in the triumph of reform. The Earl of Durham, who sue-


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