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HISTORY OF CANADA.   339

Shortly afterwards Riel himself was captured. Poundmaker's band was sharply checked by Colonel Otter's column at Cut Knife Creek, not far from Battleford, and the chief soon afterwards gave himself up. Big Bear managed to escape for a time, but was subsequently captured. A third column under Colonel Strange prevented the more westerly bands from taking part in the out-break. Before the summer was over the volunteers were again at their homes. For this second rebellion Riel was tried at Regina, found guilty, and afterwards hanged.

British Columbia. — Since Confederation the Pacific coast province has made marked progress, as the figures given on a previous page will show. The Public School system had lest somewhat of its efficiency during the years immediately preceding the union, owing to the refusal of Governor Seymour to give it financial support from provincial funds. At once after becoming part of Canada the system was reorganized, and, with liberal assistance from the provincial legislature, has gradually reached its present condition of usefulness. It is modelled upon the school system of Ontario, and at its head is a responsible Minister of Education, holding a seat in the provincial cabinet. In other directions, too, great progress has been made. The administration of justice, municipal institutions, the management of the Crown lands, and, in fact, all the departments of provincial administration, have been placed upon an efficient footing. The industrial advance has also been marked. Coal, silver, and gold reward the toil of the miner. The deposits are so rich and widely spread that marked attention has been drawn to British Columbia, and a large population is being attracted to the province. The salmon-canning industry, which began in 1876, has attained to large dimensions, and there are good prospects also for the deep-sea fisheries. The lumber trade is rapidly developing to large proportions, and railways are being constructed to open up the fertile valleys for settlement.

The Behring Sea Question.—Within the last few years a question has arisen between Canada and the United States in reference to the right of our British Columbia seamen to take Alaskan seals. A claim was advanced by the United States that not only was the whole of Behring Sea a closed sea (mare claasum) and, as such, part of United States territory, but that the seals, whose land-home is on the Pribyloff Islands, were an American herd, the property


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