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334   HISTORY OF CANADA.

government, to the regulation of the liquor traffic, and to the settlement and development of the outlying districts of the different provinces, have from time to time been improved and systematized. In social matters we have been quick to adopt those improvements which science has of late years so wonder-fully multiplied. Electricity has been put in harness, and electric lighting and heating, electric street railways, and the telephone have become a part of daily life in our cities, towns, and even villages. All these things, however, are before our eyes, and need no extended reference.

Provincial Rights.—Various questions as to " provincial rights" have been fought out in the courts, and have in many cases received their final adjudication in the Privy Council in England. As a result of this litigation a marked advance has been made toward the determination of the true line Which divides the Dominion and provincial spheres of authority. The dismissal by Sir John A. Macdonald's government in 1879 of the lieutenant-governor of Quebec, Letellier de St. Just, excited much interest. That officer had dismissed the de Boucherville ministry in Quebec, and had called upon Henri—now Sir Henri—Joly de Lotbiniere to form a new government. In the election which followed the July ministry was sustained by a very narrow majority. Nevertheless the Dominion ministry, ignoring the popular verdict in Quebec, dismissed Letellier—a proceeding which created much discussion as to the position and functions of our lieutenant-governors and as to the control of the Dominion government over them. In 1881 an Act of the Ontario assembly—popularly known as the Streams Bill—designed to facilitate lumbering operatns in the province, was disallowed by the Dominion government as an invasion of private rights. Ontario very warmly protested, and, in the end, the Act was again passed by the assembly and allowed to go into operation. Some years later (1888) the action of the Quebec assembly in passing what is known as the Jesuits' Estates Act, by which the claims of the Roman Catholic Church upon those estates were finally adjusted, was much canvassed in the other provinces ; but the Dominion government, deeming the Act to be well within the powers of the provincial assembly, refused to interfere. In the same year (1888) provincial ownership of lands purchased in earlier days from the Indians was affirmed by a


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