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Political Parties.—As political parties are still divided in opinion over many of the events of recent years, our reference to then must be brief. In the session of 1879 the " National Policy" was carried into our tariff legislation, and long maintained its place there. The government of the Dominion was, during all these years—until the summer of 1896—in the hands of the Conservative party. Until his death, in 1891, Sir John A. Macdonald remained at the head of affairs. Sir John Abbott then became premier, giving place in a short time, however, to Sir John Thompson. Upon his death, in December, 1894, Sir Mackenzie Bowell succeeded to the position. In 1880 the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie retired from the leadership of the Liberal party, and during the next seven years it was held by the Hon. Edward Blake. In 1887 he withdrew from Canadian public life, and Hon. Wilfrid Laurier became the Liberal leader. Early in 1896 Sir Charles Tupper resigned his position as High Commissioner for Canada in England, to take the leadership of the Conservative party as premier of the Dominion. At the general election in June, 1896, his ministry was defeated at the polls, and shortly afterwards resigned. A Reform ministry, under the Hon. (now Sir) Wilfrid Laurier, was thereupon called to the head of affairs.

Recent Governors.—In the fall of 1878, the Marquis of Lorne became governor-general of Canada, and for nearly five years Canadian society was graced by the presence amongst us of Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise. In 1883 the Marquis of Lorne was succeeded by Lord Lansdowne, who, in 1888, gave place to Lord Stanley of Preston, and he in turn, in 1893, to the present governor-general, the Earl of Aberdeen.

Provincial Progress. —To give, with any detail, a history of the individual provinces since Confederation would swell this book beyond all reasonable limit. Only those matters can be referred to—and that very briefly—which touch our progress as a Dominion. In the older provinces internal progress has been very largely along lyres which were laid down before Confederation. The laws relating to the administration of justice, to education, to municipal

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