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The navigation of the St. Lawrence and the canals and of Lake Michigan was also made free to both nations by the Treaty of Washington.

The Fisheries Question. — The further history of the fisheries question may be shortly stated. In 1883 the United States declined to renew the fisheries clauses of the Treaty of Washington. Canada was again driven to enforce the terms of the convention of 1818, and again much ill-feeling was created by the seizure of American vessels. In 1888, a treaty was negotiated between British plenipotentiaries—of whom Sir Charles Tupper was one—and the American secretary of state, Bayard ; but the United States senate declined to ratify it. The fisheries question is therefore still open, and, pending further negotiations, a modus rireauli, as it is called, has been arrived at by which American fishermen are allowed to take out Canadian licenses on payment of a reasonable fee.

A Third Fenian Raid.—In October, 1871, another Fenian raid was threatened, this time on the Manitoba frontier. It was largely the work of O'Donohue, who, as we have seen, had taken an active part in the Red River rebellion. "General" O'Neil was again on hand, but the whole affair proved a poor farce, the entire party being arrested by a United States marshal. Some time before this Riel had returned to his home on the banks of the Red River. He now offered his services in repelling the invaders, an offer for which he received the thanks of Lieutenant-Governor Archibald. It is charged, however, that Riel had himself fomented the raid, and that his offer of assistance was made only when he had learned of its failure. Great indignation was felt in Ontario when it became known that no attempt was being made to arrest Riel for the murder of Thomas Scott. To quiet the agitation, Riel was secretly paid a large sum to leave the country.

Fall of the Macdonald Ministry.—In 1872 Lord Dufferin, one of the most popular of our governors, succeeded Lord Lisgar. Toward the close of this year a general election took place, with the result that the ministerial majority in the House was somewhat reduced. An Act had been passed during the preceding session providing for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway by a chartered company. A company was duly formed,

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