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328   HISTORY OF CANADA.

CHAPTER LI.

ON TRIAL (1867-1878).

Organization.—The first Dominion ministry was, as already mentioned, composed of the leading men who in each province had done battle for Confederation. The first Dominion election took place during the summer of 1867, with the result that this "coalition" ministry, as it was called, was sustained by large majorities in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. In Nova Scotia, however, only one supporter of the government—Dr. Tupper—was elected out of the nineteen members to which that province was entitled, and in the provincial elections which took place there about the same time only two supporters of Confederation found seats in an assembly of thirty-eight members. This, of course, necessitated the resignation of the provincial government, a new ministry being formed under the leadership of Hon. William Annand. In New Brunswick no provincial election took place at this time as the assembly there had only been in existence for one year. In Ontario and Quebec—now separate provinces—new provincial governments had to be organized. This was accomplished by Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald and Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau respectively, and in the elections during the summer these new provincial govermnents were sustained by fair majorities.

The First Dominion Parliament. —The first Dominion Parliament met at Ottawa on the 7th of November, 1867. Its attention was largely directed toward the organization of the different departments of the Dominion government, and toward the maturing of measures relating to the customs tariff, the militia, and the postal service of the Dominion. As many of the members of the Dominion parliament were members also of the different provincial assemblies, it was found necessary to have a long adjournment of the former in order that the first sessions of the latter under Confederation might be held. Upon this question of "dual representation," as it was called, opinion in the different provinces was divided. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick at once passed Acts to prevent it. In 1872 Ontario followed their example. Quebec, however, declined to do so. The question was finally set at rest by a Dominion Act, passed in 1873, by which


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