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126   HISTORY OF CANADA.

(13) Local works ; companies with provincial objects. (14) Matters of a "merely private nature in a province."

Concurrent Jurisdiction.—Concurrent jurisdiction is given to pass laws relating to agriculture and immigration, with the provision, however, that in case of conflict between a Dominion and a Provincial Act upon either of those subjects the Dominion Act shall override the Provincial.

The " Residuum of Power."—It will be noticed that the Dominion parliament has jurisdiction over all matters not assigned to the provincial legislatures. In thus giving to the central government the "residuum of power," as it is sometimes called, our federal system differs from that of the United States, under which all matters not assigned to the central government are reserved to be dealt with by the individual states.

Responsible Cabinet Government—We turn now to the organization of the different governments, Dominion and provincial. In all, the principle of responsible government is recognized ; that is to say, the executive government is carried on by means of a cabinet or ministry (composed of the heads of the chief departments) responsible to the people's representatives in parliament. They must therefore have the support of a majority of the members in the elective branch. If they lose this support, they must resign and give place to a cabinet composed of those who have the support of a majority. This is what is called responsible cabinet government. The people elect the members ; the members control the ministry ; and, therefore, the will of the people is supreme in government.

Dominion Parliament.--The parliament of Canada consists of three branches : (1) The Queen, represented by the governor-general, who is appointed by the Imperial government. (2) The Senate,* which now (1897) consists of eighty members. Senators are appointed by the governor-general in council (that is, by the

* Originally, in making provision for the Senate of Canada, the Dominion was divided into three sections—Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces—twentyfour senators being appointed for each section. The principle of equal representation (in the Senate) has been abandoned so far as Manitoba, British Columbia and the North-West Territories are concerned, the first two of these being at present entitled to three members each and the last to two. Prince Edward Island when she joined Confederation was given four senators, two being deducted from each of the other Maritime Provinces.


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