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HISTORY OF CANADA.   325

provinces, over matters of local concern. These different classes of matters are enumerated at great length in the British North America Act, and may be thus summarized :

Dominion Jurisdiction. — The Dominion parliament has general power "to make laws for the peace, order and good government of Canada " in relation to all matters not assigned exclusively to the legislatures of the provinces, particularly: (1) Taxation (any system) and borrowing for Dominion purposes. (2) Dominion officials. (3) Elections to the parliament of Canada, including Dominion _franchise and Dominion election trials. (4) Census (for use in settling the representation of the provinces in the parliament of Canada). (5) Naturalization of aliens. (13) Military and naval service and defence. (7) Postal service. (8) Supreme Court ; the appointment and payment of superior, district and county court judges. (9) Criminal law (public safety and morality). (10) Interprovincial trade and commerce, including navigation and shipping, light-houses, quarantine, general fishery regulations, etc. (11) General financial and commercial system, e.g., currency and coinage, banks, paper money, legal tender, bills and notes, interest (usury laws), weights and measures, bankruptcy. (12) Copyright. (13) Marriage and divorce. (14) Public works, railway and steamship lines (interprovincial or for the general benefit of Canada). (15) Indians and Indian lands. (16) Performance of international obligations imposed by the British parliament. (17) Territories not within the provinces, including the establishment of new provinces.

Provincial Jurisdiction.—The various provincial assemblies may exclusively make laws in reference to : (1) Amendment of

provincial constitutions (except as to lieutenant-governor).

(2)

Sale and management of public lands (including timber).

(3)

Direct taxation and   borrowing—for   provincial   purposes.

(4)

Provincial officials. (5) Provincial elections, - franchise, and election trials. (6) Municipal system. (7) License system. (8) Charitable institutions (except marine hospitals). (9) Administration of justice in the province ; establishment of courts (both civil and criminal); punishment for breach of provincial laws ; provincial prisons. (10) Education (with saving clauses as to separate schools enjoyed by religious minorities). (11) Property and civil rights in the province. (12) Solemnization of marriage.


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