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318   HISTORY OF CANADA.

population. It adjourned for two days in order to allow the quarterly court of the colony to hold its regular session, at which, strange to say, no notice whatever was taken of Riel's proceedings. Upon meeting again, the convention was asked by Riel to establish a provisional government, but the English-speaking members objected, and the convention adjourned to the 1st of December in order that the proposition might be considered. Meanwhile the " council" ruled the colony, and Riel took possession of the public records and the company's stores.

A " Provisional Government."—On the 1st of December the convention again met, and a " Bill of Rights " was agreed to by the majority, but, as Riel was unwilling to send a deputation to confer with Macdougall at Pembina, the English-speaking members withdrew. 'Whereupon a " provisional government" was formed of which Riel shortly afterwards became president. NV. B. )'Donohue, private tutor to the children of the colony governor (MacTavish), was the treasurer ; Ambrose Lepine was adjutant-general, and A. G. B. Bannatyne, a brother-in-law of the governor, had charge of the post-office.

Riel Left in Control.—Meanwhile, without Macdougall's knowledge, the date for the transfer of the territory had been again postponed. Canada declined to pay over the £300,000 to the Hudson's Bay Company until order was restored. In ignorance of this, Macdougall, on the 1st of December, issued his proclamation as lieutenant-governor, and also gave a commission to Colonel Dennis to collect the loyal inhabitants of the colony and put down the half-breed insurrection. The attempt proved abortive. The "Bill of Rights "--a moderate document—had influenced many ; with the exception of the Canadians under Dr. Schultz, few responded to Colonel Dennis' appeal, and that officer retired again to Pembina. Shortly afterwards Macdougall, learning or the false position in which he had been placed, returned to Canada. Riel, meanwhile, had besieged a building in which Dr. Schultz and his friends were ensconced, and on the 6th of December the party, nearly fifty in all, surrendered and were imprisoned in Fort Garry. The " provisional government" established a newspaper, the New Nation, which advocated independence as a first step toward annexation to the United States.

Peaceful Councils.—Toward the end of the year Vicar-


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