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300   HISToRY (W CANADA.

adult males), living in 745 dwelling houses and having over 6,300 acres of land under cultivation. The French half-breeds were frequently drawn into the Indian wars between the Sioux and the Salteaux to the south-west of the settlement ; but apparently the settlers themselves did not sutler front Indian hostility. In 1852 there was another great flood upon the river, which did much damage ; and from time to time the grasshoppers proved very destructive to the settlers' crops.

Canadian Immigrants. — About the year 1856 a large measure of attention was given in Canada to these north-western regions, and much credit must be given to the Hon. William Macdougall for his persistent advocacy of Canada's claim to this great territory. A committee was appointed by the Canadian parliament to investigate the title of the Hudson's Bay Company to exercise jurisdiction and enjoy a monopoly in the north-west. The committee reported that this territory belonged largely to Canada, having been part of that New France which was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, at which time the Hudson's Bay Company had scarcely ventured away from the shore of the great bay. The company were now seeking to secure a renewal of their monopoly, and Chief Justice Draper was sent to England to uphold the Canadian claim. But the company were still too powerful, and were left in control of the territory east of the Rocky Mountains. Canada did not forget her claim. An exploring party was sent out in 1857, and as a result of its report a number of Canadians were induced (1859) to migrate to the Red River settlement. Among thew was one whose name roust ever be intimately associated with Manitoba's early history--Dr. John Schultz, after-wards Sir John Schultz, and lately lieutenant-governor of that province. A newspaper, the Nor'- Wester, was established, of which for sonic time Dr. Schultz was proprietor. From the first it took strong ground in opposition to the autocratic rule of the Hudson's Bay Company, and in favor of an elective assembly.

A Desire for Self-Government. —In the same year (1859) the first attempt at steam navigation on Red River was made, and, though as a commercial venture the experiment was not a success, it deserves notice as an evidence of increasing enterprise. The agitation for representation in the council went on apace. As the company gave no sign of any intention to grant it, memorials were


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