"THE GREAT LONE LAND" (1835-1867).
Twenty Years on the Red River.—With the exception of a settlement at Portage la Prairie, amounting t9 about four hundred, chiefly English half-breeds, the only population in all the region west to the Rocky Mountains (except Indians and the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company) was along the banks of the Red River. The council of Assiniboia, formed in 1835, was still the governing body in the colony, and still the creature of the company. For some years (18:19-185:1), Recorder Adam Thom--a Scotch lawyer from Montreal—acted as judge in the Red River settlement. But from the year 1833 the Court of the Governor and Council of Assiniboia alone exercised judicial functions, in all hut trivial cases. The monotony of life in the settlement was diversified, in 1.846, by the arrival of five hundred regulars of the Sixth Royal Regiment, who were sent to Fort Garry on account of the threatening aspect of the Oregon boundary dispute. After two years they were replaced by a force of pensioners, 140 strong, under Major Caldwell, who remained in the settlement until 1855. As a result of persistent complaint, the customs duty of seven and a half per cent. upon all exports and imports was reduced to four per cent. ; but the company's monopoly of the fur trade was still vigorously insisted upon. They were, however, practically forced to abandon the prosecution of the French half-breeds (b1e'tis) for taking furs from the Indians in exchange for other goods, and to this extent their monopoly was broken (1849) in the immediate neighborhood of the Red River settlement.
Quiet Progress.—In 1849 a census was taken, from which it appears that along the Red River from Upper Fort Garry, at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, to the Stone Fort or Lower Fort Garry, over twenty miles below, there was a total population of 5,391 souls (about one-fifth of that number being