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cial secretary being the only member of the executive administration who was able to secure a constituency. In 1861 the legislative council was made elective, a previous attempt to bring it more into harmony with the popular branch by increasing its numbers having failed of effect.

Material Advancement.—The census of 1861 disclosed that in spite of the incubus of a bad land system the province was making a steady growth. Its population had increased to over 80,000, as against 6.2,0011 ill 1848. The effect upon Prince Edward Island of the Elgin-Marcy Reciprocity Treaty was most beneficial, opening up for products of the farm, the forest and the sea the splendid markets of the United States cities on the Atlantic sea-board.* Ship-building was extensively carried on, but of late years, owing to the substitution of iron for wood in ship construetion, the industry has declined. In 1855 Charlottetown was incorporated ; and in the same year the Bank of Prince Edward Island received its charter.

Education.—An Education Act, the basis of the present provincial system, was passed in 185.2, and in 1861 there were 352 schools upon the island. In 1855 a Normal School for the training of teachers was established at Charlottetown ; and in 1859 Prince of Wales College, the apex of the non-sectarian system of the island, was incorporated.

The Land Question.—Meanwhile, the evils of the land system remained unremedied. The position of the proprietors had apparently become stronger as the years rolled by. To enforce a forfeiture against the present owners, who had become possessed of the lands in the ordinary course of law by inheritance, or, in many cases, by purchase, would have been looked upon as an act of spoliation. Though many huge tracts of wild land still impeded settlement, the most serious phase of the land question had come to lie the relation between landlord and tenant. Efforts were from time to time made to induce the proprietors to grant long leases, so that the tenants might feel safe in making improvements upon their lands ; but, upon the whole, these efforts had proved unavailing. There seemed to be nothing left but to pass a compulsory Land Purchase Act, under which the proprietors would be

* The census returns of 1861 show that there were 89 fishing establishments upon the island, 141 grist mills, 176 saw-mills, 46 carding mills, and 55 tanneries.

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