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HISTORY OF CANADA.   293

as the result of a new election. The Brown-Dorian ministry at once resigned after holding office for less than three days (August 2nd to August 4th). The governor's course was much criticised by the Reform party, and it is now generally adiiitted that he should not have called upon Mr. Brown to form a ministry if he was not prepared to follow its advice. The old ministry returned to office with a new name—the ('artier-Macdonald ministry perpetrating what is known as the "1)euble Shuffle." The several ministers took charge of departments other than those they had before controlled, and relying upon the strict letter of a provincial statute did not seek re-election iii their respective constituencies. Almost immediately there was another change, and the ministers were installed in the offices they had respectively held before the resignation. The proceeding was held legal, but was so clearly opposed to the spirit of the constitution that the statute was amended to prevent its repetition.

A Federal Union Suggested. —In 1859 the Reform party of Upper Canada declared iu favor of a federal union between the two sections of the province. Each section should have its own parliament to regulate its loud affairs ; while one parliament, chosen on a basis of representation by population, should legislate on all matters, of common concern. This is the principle upon which the larger confederation of all the provinces was afterwards estajlished. The Reform party of Lower Canada also adopted this platform, but there was little cohesion between the two wings. When a resolution in favor of the project was moved in the assembly in 1860, it was defeated by a large majority. The census of 1861 showed that tipper Canada had a population about three hundred thousand iii excess of that of Lower Canada, and the demand in the former for "Rep. by Pop." grew vehement.

The Canadian Dead-lock.--The result of the general election in 1861 was to give to no party a decided majority. From that time until a coalition government was formed in 1864, no less than four—some say five—ditleremt ministries held office.* The position in 1864 cannot be better described than in the

* In 1862 the Cartier-Macdonald ministry was defeated on a militia bill, which was thought too expensive a measure. It was succeeded by the Macdonald (J. S.)-Sicotte ministry, which, after a few months, was defeated on a motion of want of confidence. Parliament was dissolved and the ministry was reconstructed, becoming the Mac-


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