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292   HISTORY OF CANADA.

" Rep. by Pop."—Still less prospect was there for agreement upon the question of " Rep. by Pop.," as it was called, which about this time began to agitate Upper Canada. The census of 1852 had disclosed that the position of the two sections was now reversed ; that the population of Lower Canada was some sixty thousand less than that of Upper Canada. It was evident that this difference was increasing, and a claim was put forward by the Reformers of Upper Canada that in the assembly there should he "representation by population." This had been denied to Lower Canada at the union when she had the majority, and it was hardly reasonable to expect that she would agree to any change now that she was in the minority. The Reformers of Upper Canada con-tested the election of 1857 on the platform of "Rep. by Pop." and " No Sectarian Schools," and secured a majority from that section of the province. In Lower Canada, on the other hand, the ministry was sustained by an overwhelming majority, the alliance of the Peril Rouge with the Upper Canadian Reformers proving fatal to the influence of the former.

The Seat of Government.—Another question over which sectional feeling was aroused was the question of the seat of government. When Montreal was abandoned (1849) it was agreed that Toronto and Quebec should enjoy the distinction alternately, four years each. This had been found very inconvenient, and the propriety of choosing a permanent capital was recognized by all. Montreal being out of the question, no agreement was possible, and after some vacillation the selection was left to Her Majesty. The result was that Ottawa was chosen, and there the parliament of old Canada met for the first and last time in 18(16.

The "Double Shuffle."—In the session of 1858 an event occurred which is still often referred to on account of its constitutional importance. The Macdonald-Cartier ministry was defeated on a motion respecting the seat of government. Although after-wards sustained by a small majority on a vote of want of confidence, moved by George Brown, the ministry saw fit to resign. Sir Edmund Head thereupon called upon George Brown to form a cabinet, but after it was formed the governor declined to dissolve parliament as advised by his new ministers. He took the ground that an election had just been held, and that there was no reason to expect any change in the relative strength of parties


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