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HISTORY OF CANADA.   289

A Division among Reformers.—The Lafontaine-Baldwin ministry proved too conservative for the more ardent reformers in both sections of the province, while the more moderate Conservatives, disgusted with the Montreal outrages, inclined to give the ministry a reasonable support. By the year 1850 two new parties had become distinctly developed, the " Clear Grits " in Upper Canada and the " Parti Rouge " in the lower section of the province. Both of these favored the immediate secularization of the Clergy Reserves, the abolition of the seigneurial tenure, and certain radical reforms in the election law. In the autumn of 1851 Baldwin and Lafontaine withdrew from public life, and their places were taken by Francis Hincks and A. N. Morin.

The Liberal-Conservative Alliance.—The Hincks-Morin administration (1851-1854) was marked by great railway development, by the passing in 1852 of an Act increasing the representation in the assembly from eighty-four to 130 (sixty-five from each section of the province), and by the negotiation of the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States. After the election in the summer of 1854, it became evident that the ministry was no longer sup-ported by a majority, if Clear Grits, Rouges, and Conservatives were all counted against it. The ministry therefore resigned. No party having a majority in the House, a coalition of some sort seemed unavoidable. John A. Macdonald was the leading spirit in bringing about a union between the Conservatives and those who had supported the late ministry, the former agreeing to accept the verdict of the people—which had been strongly pronounced—in favor of secularizing the Clergy Reserves and abolishing the seigneurial tenure. The result was the Liberal-Conservative Alliance of 1854, and the formation of the MacNah-Morin ministry. The agreement in reference to the reserves and the seigneurial tenure was faithfully observed.

The Clergy Reserves Secularized.– And first as to the Clergy Reserves. It will he remembered that by the Imperial Act of 1840 the proceeds of all past sales of these reserves were set apart for the exclusive benefit of the Anglicans and Presbyterians, while the proceeds of all future sales were to he distributed : one-third to the Anglicans, one-sixth to the Presbyterians, and the remaining one-half among such other religious bodies as should choose to become suitors for state aid. This arrangement, though

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