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284   HISTORY OF CANADA.

of its terms naturally created much ill-will. By the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 an end was put for a time to all difficulty upon the question. The liberty to take fish of every kind, except shell fish, upon the coasts of the British provinces was conceded to American fishermen, without any restriction as to the three-mile limit. They were also to be at liberty to land for the purposes of drying their nets and curing their fish, so long as they committed no trespass upon private property. The concession was limited to the sea fishery, fishing in the rivers being forbidden.

The Treaty Abrogated.—Through some misunderstanding, Nova Scotia was not represented at the negotiation of this treaty, which was looked upon at first with much disfavor in that province. Nova Scotians thought that the valuable inshore fisheries had been "bartered away" for a slight return. After the treaty had been for a few years in operation, Nova Scotia was fain to admit, with all the provinces, that an enormous impetus had been given to the trade between the United States and the British provinces; and she, therefore, joined with them in the endeavor to secure its renewal. The treaty was in force for eleven years (1855-1866), and came to an end pursuant to notice given by the United States, the reason put forward for its abrogation being that the British provinces received a larger benefit from it than the United States. The real reason was the hostile feeling toward Great Britain on the part of the northern States, owing to British sympathy with the South during the American Civil War. Efforts have from time to time been made to secure a renewal of the reciprocity clauses of this treaty, and even to extend them, but up to the present time these efforts have been fruitless. The fishery clauses of the treaty fell, of course, with the others,

CHAPTER XL`'.

POLITICAL HISTORY (1848-1864).

Maritime Provinces — Municipal Government. — The internal affairs of the Maritime Provinces from 1848 to 1864 must be dealt with very briefly. In Nova Scotia the Uniacke ministry, composed of such men as Uniacke, Howe, Young, MacNab, and


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