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HISTORY OF CANADA.   283

Under it certain natural products—grain, flour, breadstuffs, animals, meat, hides, wool, timber, coal, fish, poultry, and some other articles—were to he reciprocally admitted free of duty into the United States and the British provinces. The navigation of the St. Lawrence and the Canadian canals was made free to American vessels ; that of Lake Michigan to all British vessels. No duty was to be levied in New Brunswick upon lumber floated down the St. John River from its upper waters in the State of Maine. The other provisions of the treaty had reference to the sea-coast fisheries, and as these are still a subject of dispute between Canada and the United States, a fuller statement concerning them must be given.

The Fisheries Question.—When the United States ceased to be subject to the British Crown, her citizens lost the right, which they had previously enjoyed, of fishing in what are called the territorial waters—that is, within three miles of the coast—of the loyal British provinces. Li 1818 an agreement was entered into between Great Britain and the United States, and upon this "Convention," in the absence of any other arrangement, the rights of American fishermen upon our coasts still depend. By it Great Britain agreed to allow citizens of the United States to fish around the Magdalen Islands and along certain parts of the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, with the privilege of landing on those coasts for the purpose of drying and curing their fish. Their rights upon all other parts of the coast are very limited. American fishermen are allowed to enter bays or harbors " for the purposes of shelter and of repairing damages therein, or purchasing wood and of obtaining water, and for no other purpose whatever." For some years the chief cause of complaint on the part of the American fishermen was that they were not allowed to go ashore to buy bait for use in the cod fisheries, which were carried on almost entirely beyond the three-mile limit. After a time, however, the mackerel fishery grew to large proportions, and, as this fish is caught within the limit, the American fisher-men felt aggrieved at their exclusion. But, in the interest of their own fishermen, the Maritime Provinces resented all encroachments upon their fishing grounds ; and, in 1837, the British parliament voted £500 to arum small 'vessels to prevent any breach of the Convention of 1818. This strict enforcement


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