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HISTORY OF CANADA.   275

ment in all matters relating to the internal affairs of the provinces being now fully conceded, the only question which could arise was: What matters are to be treated as matters of Imperial concern, and, as such, withheld from colonial control ? In this question all the provinces were equally interested. Each province desired that its sphere of self-government should be as large as possible ; that so far as was consistent with its relations to the British Empire it should enjoy a full autonomy. To this desire on the part of her colonies Great Britain made a most generous response. She had already given up all claim to dictate what salaries should be paid to colonial officials. Now many other matters, which had previously been controlled by the Imperial authorities, were handed over to he dealt with by the provincial parliaments as they might deem prper.

Great Britain's Trade Policy.—Freedom of trade and the right to control their own tariff~ was gained, strange to say, in a way which for a time was extremely unpopular in the British provinces in America. To understand how this came about, Great Britain's.trade policy in reference to her colonies must be briefly described. For nearly two hundred years she had monopolized the colonial trade. By the "Navigation Laws," passed in the time of Charles II., none but British-built ships could carry goods to or from British colonies. In the interest of British trade, Great Britain also framed the colonial tariffs. Even Franklin admitted the difference between duties imposed as a part of her trade policy and duties imposed with a view to raising a revenue within a colony. The American colonies rebelled because Great Britain insisted upon her right to lay a tax upon them in order to raise a revenue. In the celebrated Renunciation Act (1778), by which Great Britain declared that no such right would be exercised in future, she expressly reserved the right to impose duties in the interest of trade. Her right in this respect had never been disputed by the provinces, doubtless because the Act provided that the proceeds of all duties should be expended in the colonies in which they were respectively collected. As late as 1842 a complete colonial tariff had been framed in England for the British colonies in America. The provinces, indeed, from the earliest times had raised money for their own needs by customs duties ; but all such Acts were closely scrutinized by the colonial


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