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homeless and destitute. Liberal aid came from all quarters. When a ship-load of food and clothing arrived from the United States, followed by subscriptions in cash amounting to over $100,000, it was said that if Brother Jonathan was not inclined to be just, he at all events knew how to be generous.

The Civil List.—In 1846 another step was taken toward more complete self-government. The colonial office, as has been seen, had insistedl as a condition of surrendering financial control to the provincial assemblies, that a Civil List Act acceptable to it should be passed in each province. In Nova Scotia the fight over the Civil List was still going on. In Canada the Civil List was settled by the Union Act of 1840, and, to make any change in it, Imperial legislation was necessary. In 1846 the Canadian parliament deemed it expedient to alter the scale of salaries as fixed by the Union Act, and passed an Act for that purpose. In the following year an Imperial Act was passed recognizing the Canadian Act, and empowering the Canadian parliament to legislate upon the question from time to time as might be thought expedient. In Nova Scotia the question was settled in 1848 by the passing of a Civil List Act by the provincial assembly. This Act, after slight protest from the colonial office, was allowed to go into operation. Since that time there has been no further attempt on the part of Great Britain to dictate to her colonies what salaries shall be paid to public officials.

Education.—In 1846 Dr. Ryerson secured the passage of certain Education Acts, by which the system introduced by the earlier Acts was much improved. The framework of the new educational structure was an adaptation of the system in use in the Middle States ; the plan of local assessment was taken from the New England States ; the Normal and Model Schools were founded on the German system ; while the text-books adopted were those in use in Ireland. Experience has since suggested many improvements in this educational system. In Ontario, Grammar Schools have become High Schools and Collegiate Institutes. The University of Toronto, which in 1849 became a non-sectarian provincial institution, has drawn into affiliation with it nearly all the denominational colleges, and is now the key-stone of an educational arch of which the province may well be proud.

A Large Immigration.—The immigration from the British

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