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accepted the responsibility for the attack upon the Caroline and demanded McLeod's surrender. The United States refused. Happily, McLeod was able to prove an alibi and was acquitted, so that the danger upon this score was averted. The chief cause of dispute was now the question of the international boundary line, which already upon two occasions had nearly brought about a collision on the New Brunswick frontier.

The Ashburton Treaty, 1842.—In 1842 Lord Ashburton was sent from England to negotiate, if possible, a treaty which would settle all the outstanding questions between the two powers. On the part of the United States the negotiations were conducted by the celebrated Daniel Webster. The result was the Ashburton Treaty (1842), which Lord Palmerston called the "Ashburton capitulation," so manifestly one-sided did the treaty appear to him. It can serve no good purpose now to enter into the various claims put forward on each side upon the boundary question, or to discuss the charge afterwards made against Webster of having concealed a certain old map which supported the British claim. The treaty settled authoritatively, in its present position, the boundary line not only between Maine and the British provinces, but also that from Lake Superior to the north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods. In other respects the treaty was satisfactory. Methods for suppression of the African slave traffic were agreed on. Provision was also made for the delivery up, upon demand by either of the contracting powers, of all persons charged with murder, piracy, arson, robbery or forgery, who should seek an asylum in the other's dominions.* Upon the question of surrendering fugitive slaves Great Britain declined to make any concession, and the United States forbore to press the point.

The First Lafontaine-Baldwin Ministry.—Meanwhile the feeling had become strong among the Upper Canadian Reformers, even of the moderate type, that the continued exclusion of the French-Canadians from a nominally Reform ministry was unfair. So long, however, as W. H. Draper and some others—formerly leading men of the Family Compact—remained in the ministry, Lafontaine and the other Lower Canadian leaders declined all over-+ tures. When parliament reassembled (1842) Baldwin promptly

* The above list was very largely extended by a treaty made in 1889.

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