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HISTORY OF CANADA.   257

being one) out of an assembly of forty-one members. Joseph Howe tells us that while he and his friends were fighting the battle for responsible government in Nova Scotia, they were frequently " taunted with the quiescent condition of New Brunswick." But even in New Brunswick the existing executive well understood that if they lost control of the assembly their fate was sealed. In 1844, in order to increase the confidence of the people in the executive council, Wilmot and other reformers were added to it.

Nova Scotia—Sir Colin Campbell Disobeys Instructions.—In Nova Scotia the joy of the reformers over Lord Glenelg's despatches of 1837 was short-lived. The old single council was, indeed, abolished ; but, in forming the new executive and legislative councils, Sir Colin Campbell entirely disregarded the principles laid down by Lord Glenelg. The old sectarian and sectional preferences were almost as strongly marked as before. The proposed Civil List, too, was, in the opinion of reformers, upon an extravagant scale, taking the circumstances of the province into consideration. The session of 1838 was consequently a some-what stormy one. The assembly passed a Civil List Bill upon what they considered a liberal scale. The legislative council rejected it. The assembly then passed an address to the Crown in which they pointed out that the instructions of Lord Glenelg had been practically disobeyed ; that in the executive council of nine there were five Anglicans ; that in the legislative council eight out of fifteen were of that denomination ; that more than one-half of the members of the legislative council were from Halifax ; and that only two of them were farmers. Apparently there was some slight improvement in the composition of the legislative council, for a Quadrennial Bill, reducing the duration of the assembly from seven years to four years, became law in this session.

Discouraging Despatches.—In 1839 despatches were laid before the assembly which were looked upon as decidedly retrogressive. The offer to surrender control of the casual and territorial revenues was withdrawn, and the councils were maintained as they stood. A number of provincial Acts were, at the same time, disallowed ; among others, an Act respecting the postal service within the province, another respecting admiralty courts, and a third granting bounties upon the exportation of certain goods. All of these the Imperial authorities set aside as oplrosed

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